Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Get 'Em In-Gear for a Great School Year!

The summer vacation time has always been a great season to reconnect with family and friends at a much more leisurely pace. Travel and enjoyable activities both indoors and in the sun can do much to help all of us recreate and refresh. This is especially true for children who have a chance during the summer months to experience important downtime, allowing for more creativity and reading for enjoyment than during the much more structured school year.

However, how can we best get them ready for late August or early September when the new school year begins? There are a few ways parents can do this, ways that are relatively painless and that may even go unnoticed by the children! Here are a few great ways to start the ball rolling to get your kids in-gear to begin the new school year:

GREAT Ways to Get Kids In-Gear for the New School Year

1. Get the children to bed on time. During the summer, children aren’t always on a schedule. However, proper rest is essential for a healthy and productive school year. Help your child get used to the back-to-school routine: start the transition now to earlier wake-up times and bedtimes. Structure and consistency are very important here.

2. Provide for healthy meals. Hungry kids can’t concentrate on learning, so good nutrition plays an important role in your child’s school performance. Studies show that children who eat healthy, balanced breakfasts and lunches do better in school. Fix nutritious meals at home, and, if you need extra help, find out if your family qualifies for any Child Nutrition Programs, like the National School Lunch Program (see link below for additional information).

3. Prepare a study area. Set up a special place at home to do school work and homework. Remove distractions. Make it clear that education is a top priority in your family: show interest and praise your child’s work.

4. Read Together. Take the pledge to read with your child for 20 minutes every day. Your example reinforces the importance of literacy, and reading lets you and your child explore new worlds of fun and adventure together. Change it up and promote variety by including read-alouds, sustained and independent silent reading and discussions about what you read. Do it TOGETHER!

5. Talk about and discuss ways to manage or limit school stress. If you or your children are overly anxious about performance in school, work through your negative beliefs, especially the beliefs about the implications of school failure. Challenge those negative thoughts that the worth of a person or future prospects hinge entirely on academic grades. Good performance will be achieved only when you and your children manage or overcome your fears and discover your own personal worth.

6. Set goals. Enjoy setting goals for your children and yourself, so weaknesses can be transcended and full potentials can be reached. Study goals must be realistic and achievable. For example, encourage small steps to reach higher targets.

7. Motivate the need to learn. Achieving some goals will certainly motivate children to reach more challenging targets. Another motivating factor would be to understand that a child works primarily for herself and her future career. Apart from the external rewards that parents may promise, a child or teen must understand that studying well is an opportunity for self-development and personal improvement.

8. Provide interesting learning opportunities that engage your child. To encourage your children or teens to prepare for the new school year, expose them to activities that inspire them to learn about things that interest them. A visit to a museum in a particular area of interest for the child is a place to start. A day trip to several libraries outside your usual locale can also be a good idea. Look into library and civic programs that may be offered over the summer months at little or even no cost.

Additional Important Tips for Parents

1. Communicate with teachers and the school. Contact your child’s teachers at the start of the school year. Get acquainted with them and let them know you want to be an active partner in helping your student to learn and grow. Plan to keep track of your child’s subjects, homework, activities and progress throughout the school year. And, consider serving on your local PTA or joining other parent groups that engage with and support your child’s school.

2. Take your child to the doctor, and make sure your child has health insurance coverage. It’s a good idea to take your child in for a physical and an eye exam before school starts. Most schools require up-to-date immunizations, and you may be asked to provide paperwork showing that your child has all the necessary shots and vaccines. So, check your state’s immunization requirements (see link below for additional information). And, always keep your own copies of any medical records.

Sources & Resources

Get in Gear for the New School Year: Back-to-School Tips for Parents by ed.gov
https://blog.ed.gov/2013/08/get-in-gear-for-the-new-school-year-back-to-school-tips-for-parents/

Eight tips to start the new school year by My English Pages
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/reading-tips-for-new-school-year-start.php

National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
https://www.fns.usda.gov/nslp/national-school-lunch-program-nslp

State Vaccination Requirements
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/laws/state-reqs.html

For information about tools & resources for children & teens with reading challenges, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

Tools and Strategies to Help Unfocused, Overwhelmed and Visually-Fatigued Readers

There is no doubt that in today's world, most of us are often unfocused, inattentive and overwhelmed as a result of the amount of reading required of us each day. There was a time (and not that very long ago!) that we were not faced with a hundred emails in our inbox, various "white" papers needing our attention and attached digital documents requiring review and signatures. Needless to say, that has all changed, AND these kinds of digital media vie daily for our attention in addition to the physical media demanding our readers' eyes. To say the least, we are fast becoming immersed in text 24/7. Is there any wonder that we feel overwhelmed by it all?

Then, for a moment, imagine a challenged reader who also struggles with ADHD, dyslexia or another reading issue, too. This individual is frequently overwhelmed and often unfocused even BEFORE attempting to read. What can the average amount of media currently presented daily cause for such a reader? The result is much more challenge and struggle than many of us can visualize.

There are ways to manage such focus and overwhelm issues with large (or small) amounts of reading or text. Sometimes the right tools can make all the difference for a number of readers. For others, it might be a particular tool, focusing strategy (or combination of tools and strategies), resulting in more attentive reading with better comprehension and retention.

We have gathered here a list of resources that include BOTH tools and strategies for such readers. In fact, most readers could benefit from knowing about these resources for those times when they are fatigued or just have too much reading to accomplish in a specific time period.

We hope these resources will help you or someone you know who struggles with focus and overwhelm when reading!

Other Resources to Help with Focus and Overwhelm

How to Stay Focused: Train Your Brain from Entrepreneur
Amid the noise, understanding your brain’s limitations and working around them can improve your focus and increase your productivity. This article will provide some tips for how to do that.
https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/225321

The RIGHT Strategies Get the Job Done for Challenged Readers w/ ADHD & Others
Refer to this set of specific strategies often, and then match the appropriate strategies to every reading situation in order to improve focusing and tracking skills as well as overall reading success.
http://helpforstrugglingreaders.blogspot.com/2016/10/the-right-strategies-get-job-done-for.html

Distracted Reading in the Digital Age by Elizabeth Randolph and Vassar
This article describes how an English professor and a librarian help students focus and read with more success.
https://vq.vassar.edu/issues/2015/01/features/distracted-reading.html

Strategies and Accommodations for Challenged Readers
This web page provides a FREE downloadable list of strategies to help unfocused and overwhelmed, challenged readers of all ages.
http://www.focusandread.com/learning-strategies

Kindle & Reading Focus Cards Apps Work TOGETHER to Help ADHD & Dyslexic Readers Succeed!
The combination of these two desktop apps can work together to provide more FOCUS and less OVERWHELM than any other tech device for ADHD or dyslexia.
http://helpforstrugglingreaders.blogspot.com/2016/09/the-kindle-and-reading-focus-cards-apps.html

10 Bible Verses For When You Feel Overwhelmed by Rachel Wojo
Sometimes, the best remedy for feeling overwhelmed is reading God’s Word. The article here may be a simple post, but it is a beeline of verses that might hit the heart of the matter and could be just what the doctor ordered.
http://rachelwojo.com/10-bible-verses-for-when-you-feel-overwhelmed/

18 Tips to Support Dyslexics & Other Challenged Readers
This article offers readers a list of 18 tips to help and support the challenged reader(s) in your family or in your classroom.
http://helpforstrugglingreaders.blogspot.com/2017/02/18-tips-to-support-dyslexics-and-other.html

Feeling Overwhelmed is a Common Anxiety Symptom by CalmClinic
Feeling overwhelmed is perhaps the most common symptom of anxiety, and it can actually affect you on a very base level. This resource from CalmClinic will provide some ideas to help you manage the anxiety of being overwhelmed.
http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/symptoms/feeling-overwhelmed

Low-tech Reading Focus Cards - Customizable reading tools for physical books, documents & other applications (From $16.95)
http://www.focusandread.com/products

Reading Focus Cards App - Virtual index card-like reading tool to aid visual focus, tracking, fluency, comprehension & retention---infinitely customizable (Mac, PC-$5.99)
http://www.focusandread.com/page/488513590

OpenDyslexic - Font designed by Abbie Gonzalez to ease visual aspects of reading for dyslexia (FREE)
http://opendyslexic.org/

For more information about tools & resources for children & teens with ADHD, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com AND
Pixabay.com at https://pixabay.com

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Best ADHD Resources on a Budget

As parents and educators, we know that attention issues are more prevalent than they should be for the estimated 11% of children 4-17 years of age who have ever been diagnosed with ADHD (as of 2011, statistics provided by the CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). That's right. Depending on the state of residency, more than 6.4 million children in our country from ages 4 to 17 are challenged with some type of attention issue.

Because of continuing budget cuts for schools and a challenging economy for family households, funds are not always available for the necessary resources to address the pressing needs of these children and teens with ADHD. Although medical care and medications for ADHD can often be covered by family healthcare insurance plans, holistic or non-medical resources for ADHD are rarely included in such plans or coverage. Parents, teachers and others who care for and serve the significant number of children with ADHD are many times left to locate, research and obtain services and resources for their children or students on their own time and with their own personal funds, too.

We thought it would be beneficial to help provide some current ADHD resources to at least help save valuable time for these adults who are "on a mission" to help kids with ADHD gain access to the resources they need. As a result, we have gathered a sizable collection of ADHD articles, strategies, service providers, tools and other supportive resources---all in one place on our ADHD Resources & Support Pinterest board (1,300+ resources!) It will be good to know that many of the resources in this collection are available at very low or even no cost, too. We hope you will find all or most of what you need to help a child or teen you know and care about who struggles daily with ADHD.

ADHD Resources & Support

ADHD Resources & Support---ALL in 1 Place!
This is a collection of 1,300+ ADHD supportive resources for parents, teachers, homeschoolers & others who help or care for children & teens with attention challenges.
https://www.pinterest.com/brennajn2000/adhd-resources-support/

Sources

Data & Statistics: Children w/ ADHD--from Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

For more information about tools & resources for children & teens with ADHD, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com

Friday, March 31, 2017

The 6 Most Important Things About Dyslexia Teachers Need to Know

For many years, there is has been such controversy about dyslexia in the world of education. The reasons for this are varied, but the results of this controversy have been staggering and pervasive. For too long, there have been far too many students who cannot read. The nearly 1 in 5 students (17%) challenged with dyslexia continue to pay the price for this long-lasting controversy.

In this article we thought it would be helpful to all involved and invested in helping these students if we were to provide a short list of points for educators to keep in mind as the topic of dyslexia accommodations continues to be at the forefront of educational discussions across the country. In this way, perhaps teachers will be better able to begin addressing the pressing needs of their students with dyslexia in ways that will indeed make a difference in their academic and life experiences.

The 6 Most Important Things about Dyslexia Teachers Need to Know

1. Dyslexia is NOT a myth or imaginative condition. It is a language-based learning disability. Dyslexia is not a vision problem. It is not about intelligence. It certainly is not about laziness. Dyslexia affects the way the brain processes written and spoken language. Individuals with dyslexia have trouble mapping letters onto sounds and vice versa. Students with dyslexia usually have a hard time reading, but they can also struggle with spelling, writing and even pronouncing words.

2. Dyslexia is inherited and lifelong. It is not something a student will outgrow. At the same time, dyslexia and its symptoms may appear or be experienced differently at different times throughout development. Very often, a child’s diagnosis will result in a parent realizing for the first time that he or she also has dyslexia.

3. Dyslexia is more common than many believe. The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) estimates that as many as 15 to 20 percent of people have some symptoms of dyslexia. These individuals have trouble with reading, spelling and writing, or mixing up similar words. Dyslexia affects people from all types of backgrounds, too. Of the 13 or 14 percent of school-age children who have a condition that qualifies them for special education services, 7 percent are diagnosed with a learning disability. Furthermore, 85 percent of those children have a primary learning disability in reading and language processing.

4. Prior to Kindergarten (and even as late as third grade), dyslexia may not be obvious or suspected. Children are generally diagnosed with dyslexia when they learn to read or begin reading in order to learn. That may be in kindergarten, first grade or even later at the primary level. However, as dyslexia is often suspected or discovered in older students, it is still a good idea to request assessment since the condition sometimes isn’t identified until much later. Early identification and treatment can make a very significant difference in the long-term quality of life for students. Teachers have a very important role in all of this because they are on the front lines when it comes to identifying dyslexia.

5. There is no one solution for all with dyslexia. Not all children with reading, decoding and spelling problems consistent with dyslexia actually have dyslexia. Other language problems that cause reading challenges also need attention. Educators can use tools like the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills (TILLS) to help determine what individual students with language or literacy problems need to succeed in the classroom. It is important to note that in the case of dyslexia, a combination of the right tools, strategies and other supports may be required for reading success. A unique combination of these may very well be needed for each individual students affected with dyslexia.

6. Current and pending dyslexia legislation in many states will very soon affect teaching and learning methods, strategies, accommodations and more in many U.S. classrooms and at all grade levels (K-12). It is most important that educators begin to build their own "dyslexia toolbox" so that a portfolio of resources will be ever at-the-ready for dyslexic students (and others who struggle with reading) at every grade level. To learn more about the current and pending dyslexia legislation in your state, visit Dyslegia: A Legislative Information Site.

Sources

10 Things About Dyslexia Every Teacher Needs to Know-by Nickola Wolf Nelson, Ph.D.
https://www.weareteachers.com/things-about-dyslexia-every-teacher-needs/?utm_source=WeAreTeachers_Pinterest&utm_campaign=BrookesP_5212&utm_medium=Article_04

8 Things Every Teacher Should Know About Dyslexia-from We Are Teachers
https://www.weareteachers.com/8-things-every-teacher-should-know-about-dyslexia/

Dyslexia in the Classroom: What Every Teacher Needs to Know-from the International Dyslexia Association (IDA)
https://dyslexiaida.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/DITC-Handbook.pdf

For more information about tools, strategies & support for challenged readers with dyslexia, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Celebrate Dr. Seuss Day in Style with These GREAT Resources!

One way to the heart of a reluctant reader or one who is challenged in other ways is to mention the name of the legendary Dr. Seuss. If you are already one of his grown-up fans, you probably know that Dr. Seuss Day is just around the corner and fast approaching, too. March 2 is the BIG day, and you'll most likely want to celebrate it in a special way with the young readers (and maybe the older ones, too!) you know.

On this second day in 1904, Theodor Geisel, better known to the world as Dr. Seuss, author and illustrator of such beloved children’s books as The Cat in the Hat and Green Eggs and Ham, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. Geisel, who used his middle name (which was also his mother’s maiden name) as his pen name, wrote 48 books–--including some for adults–--that have sold well over 200 million copies and have been translated into multiple languages. Dr. Seuss books are known for their whimsical rhymes and quirky characters, which have names like the Lorax and the Sneetches and live in places like Hooterville.

This week's article will make it easy for you to commemorate the famous Dr. Seuss. We have gathered here a sizable collection of resources to make the day memorable for you, your children or students and others who love the books written by Mr. Geisel. These Dr. Seuss resources are FREE or at low cost to you. The most difficult part for you will be to choose the very best ones for the individual or group you serve, as there are so many great ones.

We know these reading and math resources will definitely get you in the mood for the GREAT day! So, you'll be all set to motivate young readers on March 2 with this ready-to-use bundle of activities, games, recipes, apps and other "goodies." These resources will help you celebrate Dr. Seuss' Birthday in style with ALL the readers you know. Happy Birthday, Dr. Seuss!

GREAT Reading Resources for Dr. Seuss Day (March 2)

Dr. Seuss We LOVE!
Here are 120+ resources (all in one place!) to help you celebrate Dr. Seuss Day in a BIG way. You'll discover math activities, videos, finger puppet instructions, recipes, apps and so much more to make March 2 a great day to remember Dr. Seuss!
https://www.pinterest.com/brennajn2000/dr-seuss-we-love/?etslf=4828&eq=Dr.%20Seuss

Seussville.com---from Random House
Random House's website for all things Dr. Seuss---Games, activities and more that are all about Dr. Seuss. FREE resources for teachers and homeschooling parents, too.
http://www.seussville.com/#/home

55 Dr. Seuss Activities For Kids---from No Time for Flash Cards
A collection of Dr. Seuss activities and resources from other blogs and websites.
http://www.notimeforflashcards.com/2014/02/dr-seuss-activities-kids.html

Sources

1904-Dr. Seuss born---from History.com
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/dr-seuss-born

For more information about assistive technologies for challenged readers, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Courtesy of U.S. Stamp Gallery at http://usstampgallery.com/view.php?id=419a16d52b4e30c45d78c6ff65fa1aaea8220ef8 and
Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

18 Tips to Support Dyslexics & Other Challenged Readers

Reading and learning do not come easily for every student. Parents and teachers often look for specific strategies and resources to assist struggling readers and learners, especially for the many with dyslexia, ADHD, autism, and/or other issues that can impact reading success.

Making using of such strategies or accommodations allows for more fairness in the classroom where other, more typical readers and learners at the same grade level may be present. These are supports that can actually help "level the playing field" for many children, teens and adults who would not otherwise receive the support needed to be successful readers and learners.

In addition, such supportive accommodations should be implemented for as long as they are needed by the individuals. Here is a printable list that you might consider to help and support the challenged reader(s) or learner(s) in your family or in your classroom:

1. Request or allow course and book content to be available via audiotape, CD, or DVD.

2. Use a portable, hand-held spell checker (such as the Franklin Spelling Ace) for unknown words.

3. Use graph paper or the Reading Focus Cards for math to promote accurate placeholder work.

4. Use interactive computer reading programs that require only a limited number of tasks at a time.

5. Underline or highlight important key words in a set of directions BEFORE beginning an assignment.

6. Fold a worksheet so that only a small amount of text, information, or problems is visible at one time. Using individualized tools can help with this as well.

7. Allow for standing at a desk/table or moving to optional work areas with less distraction.

8. Allow for the experience of a variety of sensory learning techniques such as those from the use of a computer, e-tablet, mp3 player, tape recorder, projector, and/or manipulatives. The more senses you appeal to and employ in the learning process, the more success the student will experience.

9. Use word processors or computers to complete written work, especially when writing is a struggle.

10. Allow for kneeling or standing at a desk (if needed), as long as it does not cause problems or distractions for others.

11. Allow for access to a copy of prepared notes, especially after a teaching session or discussion.

12. Arrange for a second set of textbooks at home so that materials are always at hand when needed.

13. Use very low-volume music (instrumental) or environmental sounds (seashore or other nature sounds) while doing independent work.

14. Allow for student to work cooperatively at times with others as part of a "buddy" system of support.

15. Use colored paper for all printed materials including worksheets, outlines, notes, etc. Experiment with pastels as well as bright shades. One particular color may produce the best results for an individual.

16. Use colored overlays or the low-tech Reading Focus Cards for focus and reading challenges with physical book pages, worksheets and other documents. These inexpensive reading aids can diminish or eliminate the visual “stress” or discomfort some readers/learners experience with the white backgrounds of most text pages. These same tools can also be used with Kindles, Nooks, and other e-readers (Model #001-Shorter) as well as iPads and other e-tablets (Model #002-Longer), too.

17. Make use of websites such as www.math.com, www.khanacademy.org, www.mobymax.com or other free sites for help with specific math, science or other content challenges.

18. For reading online or offline digital media, use the Reading Focus Cards desktop app with Macs and Windows PCs to provide more focus and fluency, better tracking, increased comprehension and improved retention for unfocused or overwhelmed readers.

For more information about assistive technologies for challenged readers, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image source: Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

5 Decoding Tips and Tools for Reluctant Readers

What IS Decoding?

The term decoding refers to the process of translating a printed word into a sound. To demonstrate, please read the following words aloud: dog, table, jump. This is an example of decoding regular words and is sometimes called word identification skill. Regular words are commonly used words, i.e., words frequently found in printed material.

To further illustrate the skill of decoding, please read the following words, aloud: blud, wight, frish. This is an example of decoding non-words (or decoding pseudo-words) and is sometimes called word attack skill. Pseudo-words are pronounceable based on phonics rules but are not real words. A highly similar task involves asking students to read words that they have never seen before—i.e., unfamiliar or new vocabulary words.

How can we tell if a student is proficient at decoding? The two most common tests of decoding skill are to ask students to:

1. Translate printed, regular words into sounds (i.e., word identification skill) and
2. Translate printed pseudo-words or printed unfamiliar words into sounds (i.e., word attack skill).

We can measure a student's decoding accuracy—by counting the number of times the student makes the correct sound—or the student's decoding speed (also called efficiency)—by counting the number of correctly decoded words per minute. As one might expect, high proficiency is indicated by a high rate of accuracy and/or speed.

However, significant problems result when a student's decoding skill level is low or poorly developed. When he cannot breakdown words into the sound of each phoneme, fluency, rate, tracking and other skills also suffer.

There are a variety of tips, strategies and tools available today to help improve a reader's decoding skill. We hope the following 5 resources will help you and the readers you serve to get started in the right way. In the process, you will also be promoting more in the way of phonemic awareness at the same time. The end result may very well be that reading reluctance could turn into reading motivation for the individuals you help.

Tips to Help with Decoding

1. Use individual colored markers to highlight each phoneme (or syllable, if that is the phonics method you employ) in a word. Try a different color for each phoneme. For optimum results, consistently use the same color for the same phoneme from one activity to another. This may best be accomplished by using a key or legend shared with the reluctant reader you are assisting.

2. If a variety of colored markers are not available, box out each phoneme or syllable with a pencil or pen to show the beginnings and endings of words, blends or other phonemes. As in the above method, this also helps break down a word or phrase into chunks or manageable units for a challenged or reluctant reader.

3. Cover parts of words and phrases that do not need decoding at the moment. So much of the reluctance of a challenged reader is the feeling of overwhelm by just too many letters, words or lines of text viewed simultaneously or in rapid succession. This covering can be achieved simply with the aid of a one's finger.

Tools to Help with Decoding

1. Use a ruler, index card or the low-tech Reading Focus Cards (Patent 7,565,759), inexpensive tools for challenged readers, to easily breakdown or decode words, phrases and lines of text on physical pages, worksheets or other documents. Both the colored reading window and/or the notch at the top of the focus cards can be used for this decoding process.

Use of the Reading Focus Cards' reading window (yellow filter option) for decoding:


Use of the Reading Focus Cards' reading notch for decoding:


2. Use the digital Reading Focus Cards desktop app (Patent 8,360,779) for Macs and Windows PCs, an innovative and fully customizable application for challenged readers to easily breakdown or decode words, phrases and lines of text on digital pages or documents---whether online or offline.

Here are just 2 decoding steps out of a possible 7 steps to break down the word happiness with this Reading Focus Cards desktop app:


Sources

What is Decoding? article by R.E. Mayer, education.com
https://www.education.com/reference/article/what-is-decoding-reading/

For more information about assistive technologies for challenged readers, please visit:
www.FocusandRead.com Tools for struggling readers of all ages!
www.BrennanInnovators.com Info & support for struggling readers
314-892-3897

Image sources:
Fingernail photo: Mr. Barlow's Blog at https://mrbarlow.wordpress.com/2008/10/19/why-do-you-get-white-spots-on-your-fingernails/
Other images: Brennan Innovators, LLC at www.focusandread.com